Class 12 English chapter 8 | Human Culture Exercise & Grammar

Class 12 English book chapter 8 | Human Culture | Land of plenty PDF

Unit 8

Human Culture

Land of Plenty Notes PDF

Class 12 English Chapter 8 - Human Culture, Land Plenty deals with the waste management system in Japan- SodaiGomi, which means bulky or large garbage. The free PDF notes of this chapter's exercise portion is provided in this article.

Working with words  

A. Complete the given sentences with the suitable words from the box.

a. The annual report has caused acute embarrassment to the government.

b. Ellen has worn high-heels. She is teetering.

c. Look! The poor horse is dragging a heavy load.

d. As they approached the outskirts of the city, Ella's mood visibly lightened.

e. The parcel was wrapped in plain brown paper. It still looks attractive.

f. Fruits and vegetables grow in abundance in the Terai region.

g. They can abstract precious medicines from ordinary substances.


C. Add suitable suffix to the root words given and write the parts of speech of each newly formed word.

  Root Word


New Word





















- able


- y




- ly



- able








- ness

Neighbourhood (n.)

Comfortable (adj.)

Shopper (n.)

Husky (adj.)

Squeamishness (n.)

Changeable (adj.)

Shiny (adj.)

Colloquially (adv.)

Collection (n.)

Embarrassment (n.)

Persuadable (adj.)

Typical (adj.)


Shippable (adj.)

Tropical (adj.)

Driver (n.)


Brotherhood (n.)

Freshness (n.)


D. Look for the following words related to waste management in an English dictionary. Make sentences of your own using them.

Sewage, sludge, organic waste, inorganic waste, methane, waste reduction, monofil, market waste, incineration, hazardous waste


Sewage: Sewage should be properly disposed of.

Sludge: The dumping of sewage sludge into the ocean was outlawed but still not properly implemented.

Organic Waste: Vegetable growing fosters if we use the fertilizer made by the decomposition of organic waste.

Inorganic: Inorganic fertilizers are being used by farmers to grow crops these days which is not a healthy practise..

Methane: Methane is formed by decomposition of organic by product.

Waste reduction: The greatest way to maintain a healthy ecosystem is waste reduction.

Monofil:  We used a fishing rod made up of monofil. (A large thread of man-made fibre)

Market waste: Market waste is a problem that arises due to commercialization and industrialization.

Incineration: Incineration facilities should be used only when inorganic and un-reusable wastage is to be burnt.

Hazardous waste: Hazardous waste like broken glasses and plastics should be handled and managed with extra precision. 


Answer the following questions.

a. How does the author describe the Japanese waste management system?

Ans: The Author describes the Japanese waste management system as an organized, unique and sarcastic system all at once. There existed such a system where the trash was used to be cleaned up at a specific time at a specific place. He calls it awkward to learn their habit of not using anything second hand material, no matter if it is a car or an expensive TV set. He calls it sarcastic because people who were too shy and spirited at day time not using second hand items were also picking up things at night.


B. What are the two reasons behind the existence of Sodaigomi in Japanese culture?

Ans: The two factors behind the existence of Sodaigomi in Japanese culture were the absence of a basement, garage or extra room in the tiny Japanese home and the Japanese love for cleanliness.


C. What, according to the author, do the Japanese feel at the thought of buying second-hand items?

Ans: Japanese feel like buying second hand items as buying someone’s socks. It means they feel very timid and uncivilized to use second hand items.


D. How is Malaysian culture different from Japanese culture concerning the used items?

Ans: While Japan is a place of wealth, no one in Malaysia throws anything away because they believe that everything should be utilised. In second-hand stores where products are auctioned off, Malaysians bid excitedly.  But in Japan, even the expensive items are thrown off and second hand items are considered as used socks of someone.

E. Why did the author feel awkward at the sodaigomi pile?

Ans:  The author felt awkward at the sodaigomi pile because he wanted to grab things which were needed to him but was timid to grab against the typical Japanese culture.


F. How many articles did the author bring to his house one after another?

Ans: Tea and an expensive chair were the first items the author brought. After that, he picked up a new bicycle bell, a little wooden cabinet, a full set of wrenches and screwdrivers in a metal toolbox, a Naugahyde-covered barstool, a lacquer serving tray, bookshelves, televisions, etc.


G. Why do most people try to find things in the trash pile ‘in the dead of the night’?

Ans:  Most people try to find things in the trash in the dead of the night because not everyone can afford to always use first and fresh items. Another reason was, that was the time when people had no shame or mocking at picking up things that were needed.


H. How did the author’s family assimilate Japanese culture in using consumer goods?

Ans: Assimilate means to digest or to be habitual with. The Author’s family assimilated with Japanese Culture in using consumer goods by picking up things at night and being luxurious in day time, like the Japanese did. Consumed goods are not used by the majority of Japanese citizens. But, some used to pick up trash at night because they are not supervised. 

 Critical thinking 

a. If you happen to be in Japan someday, will you collect articles from sodaigomi? Why or why not?

Ans: It depends upon the situation. If I happen to be in Japan someday, I will surely collect articles from sodaigomi if I have no or average financial strength. For various reasons (education, job, etc.), many citizens from Nepal move to Japan. Money management is a problem for them. To save money, I will probably utilize second-hand products, since they have a lot of essentials. In order to avoid detection, I may collect them without anybody noticing. Using an used item is not a sin in my culture.  

b. There are some second hand shops in Nepal, too. But, people are not much interested in them. What practice would be suitable in managing second hand items in Nepal?

Ans: The reasons for our reluctance to buy used things from such stores are many. The first reason is that we are ashamed to admit that we purchase second hand goods. As soon as other people find out that we're purchasing second-hand products, they're quick to criticize us. Sellers at second-hand businesses are unreliable who usually make fake promises in the long-term usefulness and durability of resale items.

In order to manage second hand items, second-hand purchases should become a regular part of our shopping habits. We should not be embarrassed about utilizing these products. We should avoid buying used products that are in poor shape, but we may purchase second hand furniture, electrical equipment, and automobiles that are in decent condition. 


a. Write a paragraph focusing on the concept of waste management using the 3rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle).

Answer: - Toxic waste emissions are a major cause of environmental degradation, and the 3Rs are the most efficient strategy to combat this problem. The 3rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle) rubbish management strategy is the greatest way to decrease pollution. If we can't utilize them, we'll have to find a buyer for them at a recycling plant.  Our ecosystem is being polluted by human garbage, which has a variety of harmful consequences on both people and animals. Minimizing the amount of garbage we generate each day is the goal of reducing. It is good for the environment, human health and the economy when less garbage is generated. A better environment and sustainable development may be achieved by adopting this kind of behavior. People are healthier when there is less pollution and a higher national health index. There must be an effort to reuse goods such as plastic bottles, bags, and metals instead of throwing them away. 


b. In most of Nepal's cities, waste management is a major issue. Write a letter to the editor to be published in the daily newspaper suggesting ways of ‘Solving Garbage Problems.’

Tinkune-5, Kathmandu

16, November 2021

To the editor,

Himalayan Daily,

Kathmandu, Nepal


Subject: To publish my article on garbage management in Nepal.


Dear Sir,

It’s not necessary to remind you that the Nepalese capital, Kathmandu, has been plagued by waste for the last 20 years, but now the whole country is affected. Not only the city inhabitants but also the foreigners and tourists have an unfavorable impression of our city because it is littered with waste. I'll go through some of the best strategies to avoid the issue of garbage here. I'd appreciate it if you published my article on Garbage management, which is a major issue in most of Nepal's major cities.

Garbage has many sources, in which household, industries, hospitals, vehicles are the major. First, we should separate the garbage on the basis of its nature. If it is organic, we can use it to make manures and if it is inorganic, we could either use the 3RS method, or simply use the incineration method, which will cause less smoke to burn down the trash.

First idea is compost manure preparation:

Biodegradable trash may be used to provide economic advantages. Composting or vermin composting may be used to turn organic waste into compost from solid waste or rubbish. Rural farmers have long used compost to generate manure. Being farmers, we should prioritize compost manure over inorganic fertilizers.

Second option is to use landfill.

In landfills, garbage is buried beneath the surface of the ground.  Pits or man-made pits are often utilized for landfilling. A well-managed landfill may be both sanitary and cost-effective for disposing of waste.

Third method is to utilize the usable trash

Electricity and heat could be produced by the waste. Both the production of more energy from rubbish waste and the reduction of Nepal's garbage waste issue are enhanced as a result of this approach.

Fourth option is incineration

An incinerator is a device that burns rubbish and other solid organic waste with less smoke production. This procedure is carried out in a sterile setting. This is the most used way for disposing of medical and industrial waste. The heat generated during the process may be utilized as a power source, while the ash that is left over can be used as fertilizer in agriculture. There is a potential that Nepal's garbage problem may be solved.

I am optimistic for the positive response from the respected editor and can’t wait to see this article in your next publication. 


Ram Sharma

Inhabitant of Kathmandu Valley


B. Use the words from the brackets to complete the sentences.

a. This house is very small. I want to buy a ................ one. (much / big)

  • Much Bigger

b.I liked the magic show. It was .......... than I’d expected. (far / exciting)

  • Far more exciting

c.It was very cold yesterday. It’s ........ today. (a bit / warm)

  • A bit warmer

d.The warmer the weather the ........ I feel. (good)

  • better

e.An average American earns ……………….. than an average Nepali. (considerably / high)

  • Considerably higher

f.Health care in Nepal is not as ......... as it is in the US. (expensive)

  • expensive

g.I think the problem is . ........ than it seems. (far / complicated)

  • Far more complicated

h.You are driving very fast. Would you please drive ..........? (a bit/ slowly)

  • A bit more slowly

i .Your handwriting is not legible. Can you write ........? (a bit/ neat)

  • A bit neater

C. Rewrite the following sentences with the sentence beginnings given below.

a. Kabir is less intelligent than he pretends. He is not as talented as he pretends.

b. I am busy today but I was busier yesterday. I’m not as buy as I was yesterday.

C. Hari has lived in Kathmandu for 10 years but Bikram for 20 years. Bikram has lived more than Hari in Kathmandu.

D. I used to study 12 hours a day but nowadays I study only 5 hours a day. I don’t study as much as I used to.

E. It’s a very good room in our hotel. In fact, it’s the best one.

F. He earns 30 thousand rupees a month but spends 40 thousand. He spends more than he earns.

G. There is no other mountain higher than Mt. Everest in the world. Mt. Everest is the Highest one.

H. The place was nearer than I thought. It was not as far as I had thought it to be.

I. Bharat can play better than Mohan. Mohan can’t play as good as Bharat.

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