Class 12 English Chapter 9 | Ecology and Environment Exercise & Grammar

Class 12 English Book chapter 9| Ecology and Environment | Exercise PDF

Unit: 9 
Ecology and Environment
Living in a Red wood Tree Notes PDF

A. The words/phrases in the box are from the text. Check their meanings in a dictionary and use these words to complete the given sentences.

a. Logging is one of the main reasons behind the rapid deforestation in the world.

b.That's one example of how the pandemic should be a wake-up call.

c.Propane is a gas used as a fuel for cooking and heating.

d.Emergency teams are still clearing the debris from the plane crash.

e.What a transformation! You look great.

f.My father made a New Year's resolution to give up smoking.

g.He has worked in the Army for two years. He hates that two-year stint.

h.Emissions from the factory are widely suspected of having a detrimental effect on health.

i.My father is an occasional smoker. He doesn't smoke often.

j.Redwood is a very tall type of tree that grows especially in California and Oregan.


B. The words redwood, barefoot, single-burner, short-term, fast-paced, mudslide, windstorm, and childhood from the above text are made of two words and they yield a new meaning. Compound words can be written in three ways: open compounds (spelled as two words, e.g., ice cream), closed compounds (joined to form a single word, e.g., doorknob), or hyphenated compounds (two words joined by a hyphen, e.g., long-term). Choose one word from each box to make sensible compound words.

Rattle: Rattlesnake (close)

Sun: Sunflower (close)

Touch:  Touch screen (open)

Moon:  Moonlight (close)

Day:  Daydream (close)

Fire:   Fireball(close) 

Water: Watermelon (close)

Basket: Basketball (close)

Pass:   Passbook (close)

Wash:  Washboard (close)

Weather: weathercast (close)

Grand: Grandchild (close)

Cross: Crossbow (close)

C. Match the following words/phrases related to the ecology with their meanings

a. Sustainability   - ii. to keep in existence; maintain. To supply with necessities or nourishment

b. tree line - i. the height on a mountain above which the climate is too cold for trees to grow

c. precipitation - iv. water that returns to the earth as rain, hail, sleet, or snow

d. tropical zone - x.  the region between latitudes 23.5 degrees S and 23.5 degrees N

e. Kyoto Protocol - iii. an agreement between countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. It was established in Japan in 1997 but didn't become international law until 2004

f.   Pollutants - vii. substances that destroy the purity of air, water, or land

g. Geosphere - vi. the soils,  sediments, and rock layers of the Earth's crust, both continental and beneath the ocean floors

h. Deciduous - ix. a plant that sheds all or nearly all its leaves each year

i.    Ephemeral - viii. an organism that has a short life cycle

j.    Trash - v.       items that are discarded


A. Choose the best answer.

a. The author of the text above has the opinion that Julia Hill made her pastime in a tree for two years more. 

b. The sentence ‘Julia had occasional visitors’ indicates she had a few visitors now and then.

C. The logging company managed 24 hour security service around the tree to discourage her from her campaign.

D. Ms. Hill began to respond to the loggers with songs and conventional conversations because she had unconditional love for all nature’s creations.

E. Julia Hill climbed down the tree after 738 days when her demands were about to be fulfilled.

B. Answer the following questions.

a. Who was Julia Butterfly Hill? How did Hill’s campaign gain popularity?

Environmental activist and tax redirection campaigner Julia Butterfly Hill was an American Lady. Hill’s campaign gained popularity as a result of her 738-day living in a 180-foot-tall, about 1500-year-old California redwood tree to protest against the cutting of forest. 

b. What made Hill start her mega campaign to save redwood trees?

Hill's mega campaign to save redwood trees was sparked by the cruel cutting of all redwood trees from California. 

C. What kinds of amenities were there to support Hill’s life in the tree?

Hill had very basic items with her in the tree for her survival. She had her sleeping bag, a mobile phone that could be charged using solar power, and a gas stove that could cook and boil water for her survival in the tree

D. Did Hill's value of life change after her car accident? How?

After her car accident, Hill's value of life really changed. As she expressed it, the event was a wake-up call and she started to raise awareness of the Redwood forest's situation by a 768 days campaign. She started prioritising the spiritual and moral virtues rather than jobs, money and social standards.

E. Deforestation causes natural calamities. What evidence do you have in the text to prove this

The majority of natural disasters ie. landslides and floods are caused by deforestation. In the above text also, seven people were left homeless in Stafford, California, when a massive mudslide brought down trees, stumps, and debris from the slope, resulting in the destruction of numerous trees.

F. How did the logging company try to discourage Hill in the early days of her sit-in?

Hill was mistreated by the logging company, which put security guards on duty 24 hours a day to prevent her supply crew from delivering anything to her. A chopper hovered perilously near to her, posing a serious threat. A neighboring tree was chopped down, Luna's outer limbs were knocked out, and she was verbally tortured and threatened with assault, rape, and death. Floodlights and air horns were used to torture her throughout the night, almost causing Hill's death.

g.How were the vagaries of nature unwelcoming to Hill?

Not only humans, but also nature tortured her. Her most terrifying experience occurred during a 16-hour windstorm at 70 mph, which was one of the worst storms to hit Northern California in decades. The coverings around her were blown apart by the wind, and even large limbs were taken off the tree. Her roof and wall were slashed by snow and lightning, leaving torn fragments behind. She had frostbite that left her feet covered in blisters.

h.What is the purpose of the author to write a review on Hill’s book? Do you think the author stands for ecological sustainability? Give reasons.

The author's main purpose of writing a review of Hill's book is to draw attention to the negative effects of deforestation. 

Yes, I think the author stands for Ecological sustainability. Author's choice of Julia Butterfly Hill's struggle in the campaign to protect and preserve forests signifies it more. A portion of her life was given up to safeguard the redwood forest. 

Critical thinking 

a. Suppose you are Julia Butterfly Hill. After staying one year in the tree, the government offered you five million dollars and requested you to drop the strike. Write in about 200 words responding to them that the money is a mean thing for you in comparison with the woods.

Hi, I am Julia Butterfly Hill. To keep Luna Tree safe, I've endured many hardships, including frostbite and windstorm, as well as threats of death. Unfortunately, this offer has disappointed me a lot. I had been expecting the government would make a decision for the sake of the forest rather than trying to bribe me to stop. I didn't do it for the sake of proving myself or making a name, fame, or money for myself.

My life's mission became crystal clear after my car accident. The redwood woods of California were a spiritual pilgrimage for me. Clearing the redwood forests by logging business, Luna, one of the redwood trees, was designated in blue to be taken down. It was being fought by a group of environmentalists, but they were considering calling it quits due to the approaching winter. Continued tree-sitting was necessary to save Luna from falling to her death.

The next day, December 10, 1997, I made my way up the tree to resume my campaign. By working with California's Forestry Department, the logging corporation sought to slide down the cliffs on Luna. Staying in the tree prevented them from cutting it down. For a year, they attempted a variety of methods to keep me away from the tree, but none worked. None of anything could make up for letting that tree be chopped down in front of me. Even if money is nice, it can't make up for the harm that has been done by the clearing of the forests. 

Only way to stop me is to stop deforestation. As long as I have a Redwood forest to devote my life to, I don't need the government or 5 million Dollars. Tree-planting should be the focus of that money instead.


A. Write a review of a book/film which you have read/watched recently.

A review of the movie: Pashupati Prasad

Director: Dependra K. Khanal

Starring: Khagendra Lamichane, Rabindra Singh Baniya, Bipin Karki, and Barsha Shiwakoti

Producers: Rojina Staula

Genre: Social

Duration: 130 minutes

Language: Nepali

Released date: January 29, 2016

Pashupati Prasad's narrative was written by Dependra K. Khanal. Pashupati Prasad's struggle is well shown in the film. It has shown the hardships of a common poor Nepali Youth who dreams of having a good life but is hindered by poverty. At last, a very unexpected twist happens in the movie. You should watch it once to know what happened. 

Pashupati (Khagendra Lamichhane) moves to Kathmandu after the huge Baisakh earthquake, which causes him to lose his family and his home in Sindhupalchowk. He has no property but he has fifty thousand dollars in debts from his father, who died in the earthquake. In Pashupatinath, he lives with Mitt Buwa, who goes through the dead bodies and collects the coins. He also goes to search for gold in the Bagmati River. He spends his time with a Hanuman (a criminal who changed his appearance to bypass the police). There is a conflict when Bhasme (Bipin Karki) tries to halt Pashupati's efforts. He also falls in love with a Mute girl (Barsha Shiwakoti) while selling second hand sarees in the street. He collects money to buy a Momo’s cart. One day Pashupati finds a gold ring in Bagmati River and goes to sell it. But, the jeweler misuses his ignorance and calls the public blaming him that he stole his ring. The public beats him until he dies.

There will be tears in your eyes as you finish watching this heartbreaking movie. You will be able to see yourself in the protagonist's hardships. He does all he can to make a few dollars, but he fails. Moreover, how stunning the cinematography in this film is. Artists and actors that use dramatic tones in their performances, in my opinion, touch the hearts of everyone in the theater. He is a natural performer, and his performance and part in the film are captivating.

I think this is a really good film. Don’t miss it.

B. Your school is going to organize a speech competition on Friday. The subject of the speech is “Let’s save the trees and protect our environment.” Draft a speech using the following prompts.


Greetings to the intellectuals, notable guests, my revered teachers, and my beloved friends this morning. My speech's title is "Let's save the trees and protect our environment." Through my speech, I want to convey to you the importance of trees and forests, as well as their contribution to our lives.


Plants, and animals make up the natural world. Millions of trees and billions of live creatures exist in this environment. The whole atmosphere, soil, plants, water are equally needed by human beings and all other species and they may coexist only in a healthy environment.

Trees are one of the most vital natural resources that sustain all life on Earth. Trees help protect the natural environment by controlling pollution levels and removing toxic air from the atmosphere generated by human activities. They provide a safe haven for a large number of animals and aid in the natural process of enhancing soil fertility.

As a thank you for all of the advantages trees bring, we selfishly take them down. We are so reliant on this natural resource that we are destroying it and causing damage to the environment in the process. There will be no place left to live on this planet if this trend of deforestation continues and people don't grasp the need of planting trees. 

Trees save us. So, we should start saving ourselves by planting trees in our own backyard and throughout our community. We should spread the word about the necessity of doing so. For the sake of the environment and the rest of the world, we have to do what we can without the greed of recognition.

At last, Let's all agree to abandon this destructive practice and instead focus on reforestation. Let’s pledge to rescue the trees and save the world!

Thank you!


Reported speech

B. Someone says something to you which contradicts what they told you earlier. Match the beginnings of the conversations with the correct endings.

a. I'm going to Pokhara on holiday.

vi. You said you were going on business.

b. He's a lawyer.

iii. You told me he was a teacher.

c. She's had a baby girl.

  i. You said she'd had a boy.

d. I haven't seen Binesh for ages.

viii. You told me you'd seen him

previous week.

e. I love these new boots.

v. You said you hated them.

f. I only cheated in one exam.

ii. You admitted you cheated in all your exams.

g. She doesn't speak Hindi or Chinese.

  iv. You told me she was fluent in both.

h. He works in Kathmandu.

vii. You told me his office was in Biratnagar.


C. Change the following sentences into indirect speech.

a. The principal said, “You can phone from my office, Rita.”

The principal allowed Rita to phone from his office. 

b. “You must not neglect your duty,” said the teacher to the student.

The teacher told the student not to neglect his duty.

c. The student said, “Sir, please, grant me leave for two days.”

The student asked the teacher to grant him leave for two days.

d. I said to her, “Go to school or you will be fined.”

I ordered her to go to school to avoid the fine.

e. The headmaster said, “Don’t make any noise, boys.”

The headmaster forbade the boys to make any noise.

f. “Work hard if you want to rise in life,” said the old man.

The old man advised us to work hard to rise in life. 

g. He said, “Goodbye, my friends!”

He bade his friends good bye.

h. She said to me, “Have a pleasant journey ahead.”

She told me to have a pleasant journey ahead.

i. “Don’t give me the book, please,” Sharmila said.

Sharmila requested not to give her the book.

j. “Where have you been these days?” she spoke on the telephone.

She asked on the telephone where he had been those days. 

k. The teacher said, “Have you submitted your assignments, students?”

The teacher asked the students if they had submitted their assignments.


D. These are the exact words Dinesh said to you yesterday.

"I've just got engaged! We're getting married next month. We're going to Pokhara for our honeymoon. It's all going to be very expensive. Luckily, my friend is a photographer so he'll take the photos for us. We'll be having the reception in my parents' back garden. My mum is baking the cake for us and my sister's band is playing free for us. I hope you'll come to the wedding."


Now, you're telling your friend what Dinesh told you. Complete the text.

He said he had just got engaged. He told me that he was getting married next month. He told me that they were going to Pokhara for their honeymoon. He mentioned that it was going to be very expensive. He said that his friend was a photographer and he would take the photos for them. He mentioned that they would be having the reception in his parents' garden. He admitted that his mum was baking the cake for them and his sister’s band was playing free for them. He said he hoped I'd come to the wedding.

Also Read: chapter 10 Career Opportunities

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