Family Exercise & Grammar - Class 12 English Chapter 2
Unit - 2
Working with words
A. Find words from the text and solve the puzzle. Clues are given below.
1. the custom having more than one wife at the same time = Polygamy
5. to find acceptable way of dealing with opposing ideas, needs etc. = Solution
6. the process at which towns, streets, etc. are built where there was once countryside = Urbanization
7. the process in which somebody learns to behave in an acceptable way in their society = Socialization
1. ruled or controlled by men = Patriarchal
2. the act of taking over a position = Domination
3. done in a way without caring if people are shocked = Blatant
4. single-parent = Lone Parent
B. Find the meanings of the following family-related words and use them in your own sentences.
= Families with two parents and one or more children are referred to as nuclear families.
Sentence: After adopting the nuclear family model, we've forgotten to care for the old people.
= The system of marrying one person at a time.
Sentence: Forbidding monogamy and insisting that all men have numerous women, Muhammad quit the religious cult in protest.
= The spouse of one's sibling or the sibling of one's spouse is referred to as one's sibling-in-law.
Sentence: My sibling-in-law has returned from Australia and currently living with us.
= Breastfeeding women and their non-biological nursing babies are considered "milk kinship", and future marriages between "milk brothers and sisters" are forbidden.
Sentence: She is not my biological mother but yet we have a milk kinship because She had breastfed me when I was an infant.
= System in which ancestry is traceable via maternal rather than paternal lines (the latter being termed patrilineage or patriline).
Sentence: Matrilineal system has not been inherited in our society yet.
= Such a condition when people in positions of authority or influence provide preferential treatment and employment to their close relatives or friends.
Sentence: There's no doubt about it, Shyam is a fool, still his father hired him with nepotism.
= State or feeling of being mother, motherhood
Sentence: She is not a woman with an interest in maternity.
C. The following words are from the above text. Each word has two parts.
polygamy, unmarried, nontraditional, dissolution, inequitable
poly, un, non, dis and in are prefixes. They make new words when they are added to the beginning of other root words.
Make at least five words using the prefixes given. Consult a dictionary to learn how they change the meaning of root words.
A. The headings of the first five paragraphs of the above text are given below. Write paragraph number next to them.
a. Patriarchal family = 3rd Paragraph
b. Functions of the family = 2nd Paragraph
c. Modern model of family = 5th Paragraph
d. Effects of industrialization on family structure = 4th paragraph
e. Defining family = 1st paragraph
B. Answer the following questions.
a. What type of family is thought to be the oldest form of the family?
= Nuclear family is considered to be the oldest of all family forms.
b. How does a family provide security to its members?
= Security is a major benefit of a family, both physically and mentally. If necessary, a strong family will provide protection against pressures from the outside world and provide its members the confidence they need to confront these challenges.
c. What were the features of medieval European families?
= The main feature of Medieval European family is that it was male-dominated and extended.
d. What caused the dissolution of extended families in the West?
= The major cause of the dissolution of extended families in Western countries is industrialization and urbanization. These two factors have primarily brought numerous new developments. Unmarried youths in particular abandoned rural areas to work in factories in metropolitan areas. As a result of this procedure, a number of extended families were dissolved.
e. What change occurred in gender role in the modern family that emerged after the Industrial Revolution?
= Originally, the industrial revolution led to the domestication of women, as men went to occupations in other sectors, and women were expected to care for the children. Similarly, Family responsibilities that were previously believed to be entirely male or female were changed into shared responsibilities. Also, As divorce rates rose, so did the number of one-parent families.
f. What is family law?
= Legal problems related to family relationships, such as adoption and divorce, are dealt with under the field of law, which is called family law. Children's issues are handled by family law attorneys as well as other relevant legal issues.
g. How is modern marriage defined?
=Simply modern marriages are defined as such marriage where the husband and wife share responsibilities. Traditional weddings have trapped the couples into their predetermined roles without a choice. Modern marriages make individual choices possible. The couples are regarded as equal partners and women have a role in decision-making for the family.
h. What do special family courts try to do?
= Family court is a special court for legal issues originating from family connections. The family court is typically a combination of various kinds of courts, such as the courts and orphan courts, which deal with specific family issues such as matrimonial issues, spousal property, the legitimacy of any person, maintenance, guardianship of the person or custody of or access to any minor.
i. What does the legislation on child labour and child abuse declare?
= The legislation on child labour and child abuse declares that "No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or employed in any hazardous employment." It further asserts on child interest-based behaviours to be done and of free education and health care.
j. What is common among most legal systems regarding property?
= In most legal systems a departed family member can deal with property sharing. The will or legacy describes the decedents' desires for such distribution, however, what appears to be irrational or unfair provisions could be opposed by the spouse or child survivors. In case property is not claimed, there are also laws which recognize family claims (i.e., with no will to determine its distribution).
a. What changes have started to occur in Nepali families in recent days? What impacts will they bring on the society? Discuss.
= In today's families in Nepal, though patriarchy has it's deep rooted presence, some changes have started to roll out. Women are being independent. They are not only trapped in hope doing home activities that were predetermined. Gender equality and equal rights are evolving in Nepal in gradual pace. Every member of the family understands each other happily and may share an idea, the concept in the family. Both men and women can control the household, their own country, in Nepali households.
At the past, marriages were organized by parents and all social traditions were followed. However, today's trend is totally different and young people in Nepali society decide their future independent and marriage, particularly in universities and colleges, friend groups are active. The reason for rising the ratio of divorce is because parents do not participate and adolescents have made mistaken decisions about the wrong results.
In today's development oriented families, Everyone in the family, male and female, has equal rights. The tradition of living in joint family is barely prevails in Nepali society. Nowadays, young couples desire to live with children, husbands and women in a nuclear family with full happiness, yet on the other hand divorce is rapidly increasing in Nepal as a result of the nuclear family's misunderstanding. The feeling of selfishness has emerged out and people expect their sensation to gratify nowadays.
The major advantage that a nuclear family has is a separate entity that is completely free of older members' supervision. The children in the nuclear family are closer to their parents and they may readily talk to themselves about their concerns. People in a nuclear family can freely make their decisions and set new regulations and rules for their little households. Nuclear families are financially stable enough to live with their children in luxury. Women have a lot of time in the nuclear family to take care of their children, but they also can control things as they like.
But on the other hand, You can't receive support instantly in your emergency in a nuclear household. Children cannot grow up with their grandparents as well as other family members and they do not comprehend the culture and values of the family for this reason. A nuclear family is not helping, so women must play several duties, such as cooking, babysitting, and so on, so it's hard for them to take care of themselves or manage their relationship with others. The husband and wife of a nuclear family generally work, and their children are neglected and emotionally unsafe. They will start to feel lonely when they go free. Housewives, in particular, may feel alone if no one speaks.
b. We see many elderly people in the elderly homes these days in Nepal. Some of them are abandoned while others live there willingly. Do you think Nepali people are deviating from their traditional culture? Give reasons.
= Majority of people in today's society have lost their souls, promised to earn money to themselves. Our desire for owning and enjoying material things creates this scenario. We weren't as old, the elders were respected, adored in a common family structure, were the apple of the eye. Now it's all nuclear, family, arms, theory of the single child. Happiness is the main motivation, as if we're going to live forever. Everything else is thrown away. This is the cause of the sad condition of seniors' families' ideals and the culprits are western culture and materialistic views.
In nepali society, after greed, study reasons and industrialization is also the cause of sorry state of our elderly people. People are busy at their work and jobs, have no time to take care for their old parents. That is why Even parents do not will to stay with their offspring with the fear of being neglected. Nepali people are not actually deviating from their traditional culture, but the time and busy work schedules and desire of having a very small or nuclear family is the main cause of such state of older people in our society.
a. Write an essay on The Importance of Family.
Importance of Family
Family is defined as a group of one or more parents and their children living together as a unit. Family is a valuable gift that god has given to us. Love, support, and a shared set of values are all provided by the family. Each member of the family teaches and serves the others, and they participate in each other's pleasures and sorrows in life together. People grow in their families.
A child's family is the single most significant impact on his or her development. Since their infancy, children have relied on their parents and relatives to protect them and care for their basic necessities, as well as to educate them. Families and parents are the first people a kid meets. In addition to providing protection and identity, families instill values in all members, regardless of age. The family comes to the rescue when a member of the family is insecure or in danger and needs assistance. He develops a sense of self and a basis for the rest of his life as a result. This includes the familial values, which form the basis for his personal moral code. Time spent with family teaches people the importance of love, gratitude, and open communication. Maintaining family customs also reinforces the significance of the bond between members of the family. We call them "family traditions" because they're events that families share on a regular basis. In addition to creating a lifetime of memories, these events offer family members a greater feeling of belonging. Every member of the family feels significant because of the connection that is formed.
In nutshell, God's greatest gift to us is our family. On other words, it's the first lesson in how to relate to people. 'Family' has a great deal of meaning. In other words, it is feeling safe, having someone you can rely on, and having someone with whom you can talk about your difficulties with. But it also entails mutual respect and a shared sense of responsibility for others.
b. Some individuals believe that living in a nuclear family is preferable. Others believe that living with extended relatives is preferable. What are your thoughts? Write an essay comparing and contrasting the benefits and drawbacks of each.
The ideal family is one that allows each family member to develop and have his or her own space, appreciates ideas and views, believes in equality, and shares mutual respect and understanding. Of course, every family has its unique set of problems. However, the family that overcomes all of this and does not drag the problems are the ideal.
If members of a joint family or a nuclear family aren't permitted to express themselves properly, they may feel very lonely and a feeling of lack of freedom.
A nuclear family has its own set of disadvantages. At times, you may feel lost. Especially while parenting small children without the assistance of parents or other family members. A combined family may be more beneficial in this regard. But, before I form a judgment, I should note that, since a joint family has many people, there may be many diverse views and conflicts.
There are many Joint family's advantages. Children have a great time. Whenever you need it, you may ask for help. Childs learn moral values from elder people. There are enough people in your life to take care of. It makes reduction in workload.
On the other hand, Young couples have less alone time. Everything is a family affair, therefore it's unusual to see a couple out and about on their own. Their schedules for domestic chores may vary.
Overwhelming amounts of unwelcome advice leave little room for experimentation. The rules are enforced with more rigor. Last but not least, there is the issue of money. As long as the family's income is derived from a shared source, it is OK. It is tough to manage finances if everyone earns differently. Either the high-income individual has to pay more, or the quality of life for him/her would be much lower if everyone paid equally.
So, to summarize my opinion, it depends on who makes up the family. Members must be patient with one another. There are happy nuclear families as well as happy joint families.
A. Study the given sentences carefully.
a. Please read this letter for me. I can't see without my glasses.
b. After working for a couple of years in China, I can speak Chinese now.
c. When he was 40, he could earn six digit salary.
d. After six hours' climbing, we were able to reach the summit.
e. Yesterday, I lost my keys. I looked for them everywhere but I couldn't find.
Simple logical trick-
Use should - when 80% Chances are there
Use Might - when 50% chances are there
Use would - for conditional statements
Use must - used for present and future reference to express obligation, give orders and give advice.
Use could - when there is a option
B. Choose the best answer to complete the sentences.
a. 'How much was your parking ticket?' 'Fifty rupees.' 'Oh well, it could have been worse.'
i. could have ii. must have iii. should have
b. It might have got lost in the post. These things happen sometimes.
i. can't have ii. might have iii. must have
c. 'Sorry I'm late. I got delayed at work.'
'You could have called. I was really worried about you.'
i. must have ii. could have iii. would have
d. 'I don't think he meant to be rude.' 'He must have said sorry.'
i. must have ii. might have iii. would have
e. 'Whose signature is this?' 'I don't know. It could be Manoj's. That looks a bit like an M.'
i. must ii. could iii. should
f. I had it when I left the office so I must have lost it on the way to home.
i. mustn't have ii. must have iii. should have
g. You might think it's funny, but I think it's pathetic.
i. might ii. should iii. could
C. Complete the following sentences with appropriate endings. Use correct modal verbs.
She could be a doctor; however,…………….…………… .
She could be a doctor; however, she preferred to be an advocate.
a. At the end of the course, students must submit their assignments.
b. If you want to earn a lot of money, you should work hard for smarter things.
c. You were not in your house yesterday. You might have been with your friends for movie.
d. I'm quite busy tomorrow. I could not join you on morning walk.
e. When you were a small kid, you might be notorious.
f. My car is broken. I might buy a new one.
g. I've got a fast speed internet at home. I should not misuse it for uneccesary things.
h. Even though she didn't study well, she might have passed the exam.
i. There are plenty of newspapers in the library. You can pick one if you want.
j. What do you think you were doing, playing in the road? You could be hurt on a accident.
k. I have no time. I could not waste more time anymore.
l. You don't look well. You might be delirious.
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