Knowledge and Wisdom Exercise Class 12 English : Questions Answers

Exercise of Knowledge and Wisdom by Bertrand Russell PDF Class 12


The Essay "Knowledge and Wisdom" Exercise by Bertrand Russell PDF class 12 English


a. What are the factors that contribute to wisdom?

In the essay "Knowledge and Wisdom," Bertrand Russell discusses numerous factors that lead to wisdom. Among the characteristics that lead to wisdom, according to him, are: 

(I) a sense of proportion, 

(ii) comprehensiveness with wide emotion, 

(iii) emancipation from personal biases and sensory experience,

(iv) impartiality, and 

(v) knowledge of human needs and understanding.

b. What message does the writer try to convey with the examples of technicians?

Russell has provided several examples of technicians to illustrate the dangers of relying only on technical expertise. They're unable to see how their expertise in one subject may be detrimental in another. As an example, population expansion and food shortages may result from the discovery of a treatment that lowers newborn mortality. Atomic physics may be abused in the same way to create atomic weapons.

c. Which leaders does Russell say were able to mix knowledge and wisdom soundly?

It is said that Henry IV of France and Abraham Lincoln are examples of people who are able to combine knowledge and wisdom successfully, according to Russell. Queen Elizabeth I and Henry IV were undisturbed by the battle between the Protestants and the Catholics, which allowed them to stay free from the faults of their period. Like Abraham Lincoln, who never deviated from the path of wisdom during the Civil War.

d. Why is wisdom needed not only in public ways but in private life equally?

When it comes to wisdom, it may be applied in both public and personal life at the same time. It's essential for making decisions about goals and objectives, as well as for letting go of one's own biases. Without wisdom, we may not be able to choose our life's purpose or have the patience to persuade others about it.

e. What, according to Russell, the true aim of education?

According to Russell, the fundamental goal of education is to instill knowledge in individuals. Wisdom is the ability to apply what we've learned in the classroom to the real world in a way that doesn't hurt others or ourselves. To be decent citizens, individuals need more than just information. They need wisdom, too.

f. Can wisdom be taught? If so, how?

It is possible to teach wisdom according to Russel. Wisdom should be taught with a greater emphasis on logic and reasoning than on morality. In the process of imparting information, people who harbor animosity and narrow-mindedness may unwittingly learn about the devastating consequences of their actions. An atom bomb, for example, can only be made by misusing an atom's composition, thus it's important to educate students about the consequences of its abuse.

g. Why does the world need more wisdom in the future?

If knowledge is not paired with wisdom, most individuals will continue to misuse their information, which has a number of bad consequences. Wisdom is the only thing that makes people intelligently apply the information they've gained. That's why more wise evaluation and outlook is necessary for a brighter future.

Reference to the Context

Answer the following questions.

a. According to Russell, “The Pursuit of Knowledge may become harmful unless it is combined with wisdom.” Justify this statement.

People are interested and want to learn new things, thus the answer is yes. Most individuals have dedicated their whole life to learning. Humans may benefit from certain knowledge, but we can also be harmed by other types of information as well. We may benefit from wisdom and knowledge since it meets the needs of all people.

Making weapons with the understanding of atomic composition has made it dangerous to humankind. Hegal, despite his vast knowledge of history, convinced the Germans that they were the superior race. There were terrible conflicts as a result of it. Knowledge must be paired with a sense of compassion. To determine our life's purpose, we need a defining moment. It liberates us from our own preconceived notions about other people. In the absence of discernment, even great things might be employed in imprudent ways.

b. What, according to Russell, is the essence of wisdom? And how can one acquire the very essence?

According to Russell, Wisdom is freedom from the tyranny of bias. There is less focus on our physical health when we don't think about it. Wisdom is what elevates us to a greater level of spirituality by causing us to care and love the whole human race. To make the appropriate judgment, we need to have a wide perspective and an open mind. Understanding the end of human existence, properly using our knowledge, establishing noble and achievable objectives, managing our sensory perceptions, progressively becoming impartial and loving others are all ways in which we might gain the essence.

Reference Beyond the Text

Answer the following questions.

a. Why is wisdom necessary in education? Discuss.

Wisdom allows us to see the world in a more expansive and objective way. The intimacy of our thoughts and emotions diminishes as we get older. So that we may properly use what we've learned. It enables us to put our knowledge to good use for the greater good of humanity. In the presence of knowledge, we are able to love even our adversaries, to entirely shed our ego and to be free of every bias. Education/knowledge is a component in a person's life, but so is wisdom. In order to achieve perfection, one must be able to handle both of these aspects. In addition to teaching information, education aims to cultivate decent people. People who lack wisdom, which does not come to them naturally but must be taught, may abuse the newfound information they've gathered. As an educational aim, it should be taught in schools. When it's first planted, it has to be nurtured by real-world examples.

b. How can you become wise? Do you think what you are doing in college contributes to wisdom?

Wisdom is a tough notion to describe, but we can all identify it when we see it in action. Wise people are self-aware, open to new ideas, and cognizant of the fact that the world around them is continuously changing. I think college only partially contributes to wisdom.

Wisdom takes time to acquire. The only way to grow wisely is to be patient and to work hard at it. Wise thinking is linked to a better quality of life, less negative emotions, better relationships, and less depressed thinking. Despite how smart a person is, he will make mistakes. When you do something wrong, you learn from it. Keep in mind that making mistakes is an important part of learning and growing, so don't worry about it. Positive thinking is also an important step on the way to becoming wise. What ever happens in your life, keep your spirits up, have faith in yourself, and keep going even if things don't go your way. A wise person doesn't worry about anything. The problem can be solved calmly. This is how I think we can be wise.

Also Read :Summary of Knowledge and Wisdom Bertrand Russell

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