Class 12 English Unit 19 Migration and Diaspora Exercise & Grammar Notes
Migration and Diaspora
Dediasporization: Homeland and Hostland
WORKING WITH WORDS
A. Find the words from the text that have the following meanings.
The first letter of the word has been given.
a. S..................a person who resides temporarily in a place
b. ............. existing in or involving different countries
c. ................. a sum of money sent in payment or as a gift
d. a............. the process of allowing somebody to become a part of a
country or community
e. m ............ a name or a word that is not appropriate or accurate →misnomer
f. C................. to give somebody an award or a particular honour or right -
g. d.................. not active or growing now but able to become active -
i. p......... the act of treating somebody in a cruel and unfair way
c. The vocal cords vibrate while producing voiced sounds. The initial sound/d3/in jam is a voiced sound. The vocal cords do not vibrate while producing voiceless sounds. The initial sound /p/ is a voiceless sound. Pronounce the sounds in the above chart. While pronouncing, notice whether the vocal cords vibrate or not and categorize them into voiced and voiceless sounds.
All sounds are either voiced or voiceless. Voiced sounds are those that make our vocal cords vibrate when they are produced. Voiceless sounds are produced from air passing through the mouth at different points.
Voiced Consonant Sounds: b, d, g, j, l, m, n, ng, r, sz, th, v, w, y ,z
Voiceless Consonant Sounds: ch, h, f, k, p, s, sh, t, th.
C. Write the number of syllables and mark the stressed
syllable of the following words.
certificate - cer-tif-i-cate - 4 syllables
holiday - hol-i-day - 3 syllables
zoology - Zo-'ol-o-gy - 4 syllables
photographic -foh-tə-'græf-ik -4 syllables
geography -ge-og-ra-phy - 4 syllables
curiosity -cu-ri-'os-i-ty - 5 syllables
mechanically -me-chan-ic-a-li -5 syllables
characteristics - kárəktə'risdik -5 syllables
examination - ex-am-i-'na-tion -5 syllables
negotiation - ne-go-ti-'a-tion -5 syllables
paraphrase 'par-a-phrase’ - 3 syllables
paradoxically -'pærə dpksikli -6 syllables
territoriality -terat(ə)ri'æləti -7 svilables
A. Match the first halves of the sentences
One has been done as an example.
a. The term assimilation has been used - (-iii. as an analytical tool in the study of integration of the migrants.
b. It is essential to study the process of diasporization -v. in order to understand the description of immigration.
c. The definition of dediasporization -vii, focuses only on the aspect of relocating migrants to their homelands.
d. The dediasporization process for migrants who have not given up their native citizenship -Vi. requires them only to return to their homeland.
e. Some countries grant full citizenship to the returnees -iv. While
some countries bar them from certain rights.
f. It is surprising that -i, in some countries the returnees are
referred as diaspora.
g. The role of a state in diasporization -ii, reveals its cientity
B. Answer the following questions.
a. According to the author, what are the three aspects of migration?
Forward movement, migrants themselves, and backward movement are the three aspects of migration, according to the author.
b. Which aspect of migration is neglected by the researchers?
Researchers tend to neglect the multifaceted nature of the dediasporization process.
c. What is 'dediasporization'?
Dediasporization is the process of returning to your home country, assimilation in your host state, or joining the transnational circuit of a transnational-state when you leave your home country and come back.
d. Why is the role of the state important in dediasporization?
When someone leaves their home country, the state has a big influence on the process because it makes sure that the person is eligible to become a citizen again, with all of the rights and responsibilities that come with it. The state also has set rules for how it makes decisions in each case.
e. How is the Chinese diaspora in the Caribbean different from others?
The Caribbean Chinese diaspora is different from others because the locals still see them as outsiders, despite the fact that they have been there for over a century.
f. Why is it difficult to regain citizenship after returning to the homeland?
Regaining citizenship after returning to one's native country is difficult because it depends on the state's decision to provide legal validity to citizens. Some nations allow individuals to relinquish their citizenship, but the process of reclaiming it might be very difficult.
g. What do the Germans feel towards the returnees from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan?
Returnees from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan are treated differently by Germans than German citizens and other members of society.
h. How are the returnees' activities in Israel different from that of other countries?
The actions of returning citizens in Israel are different from those in other nations. They mention full citizenship from their political parties and push for the rights of other Israeli citizens.
i. What is the role of the individual in dediasporization?
Dediasporization relies on the individual to integrate with the local population, maintain their nationality, and participate in the process of nation-building.
a. Many Nepali people are living in foreign countries now and they are known as Non Residential Nepalis (NRNS-HIYOH UST). The NRNs are asking for dual citizenship rights. Do you think the Government of Nepal should address their demands?
Non-Residential Nepalis, as the name implies, are individuals who have left Nepal and are now residing in other countries (NRNS). In Nepal, this is a growing trend. Some of them have dual citizenship with the nations in which they now live in the U.S. and another country.
People in Nepal cannot be citizens of two countries at the same time, according to the law. They have to leave one nation and give up their citizenship in order to get citizenship in another. As a result, many individuals are forced to relinquish their nationality.
Non-Resident Nepalis' desires should not be addressed by the government in the sense that one should not be able to have dual citizenship in two countries at the same time. Non-Resident Nepalis, despite their love, passion, and loyalty to the nation, are not allowed to legally have dual citizenship.
Non-Resident Nepalis should not be granted citizenship as a long-term solution, but rather should be given the opportunity to work inside the country for the well-being and happiness of its population as a whole.
b. The NRKs celebrate festivals like Teej, Dashain, Lhosar, Id and Holi in foreign countries. What do these celebrations signify?
Non-Residential Nepalis are Nepalis who reside outside of Nepal (NRNs). Festivals like Lhosar, Id. Teej and Dashain, Holi, and many more are celebrated across the world by NRKs.
They have a strong sense of patriotism and love for their homeland. They long for their native place and all of its customs, festivals, and rituals. They are Nepalis by birth. Despite the fact that their physical bodies are in other nations, their thoughts and emotions remain in Nepal. These celebrations serve as a link to their native place for them.
A. The following words and phrases are used in interpreting data of different types of charts and diagrams. Study the words/phrases and put them in the right column.
Upward Trend : Grow, go, upto, boom, peak, level up, increase climb, rise
Downward Trend : Decline, collapse, fall,drop, dip, down,reduce, decrease, crash, plunge, plummet
Stable Trend : Stay, constant, remain, stable, no change, remain, steady, stay, maintain, the same level
B. Make comparisons when required.
a. Nepali student migration
A bar graph shows how many Nepalese students departed between 2009 and 2010. It was in 2009-2010. From 2002-2010, the number of migrant students increased to 26948, then fell to 10258 in 2011. The number of migrant students has declined since 2009. It has risen steadily from 2012/2013, reaching 63259 in 2018/2019.
Overall, the statistics suggest that student numbers expanded rapidly from 2008 to 2009, then fell drastically from 2011 to 2012, before rising again from 2013 to 2014. It climbed gradually from 2014 to 2018, then again in 2019 to 63259. The most migrant students were in 2018/2019, while the least were in 2011/2012.
b. Reasons for internal migration
The pie chart below shows the causes for people relocating inside the country. It mentions marriage among other things. another historical explanation. new businesses, education. The desire to pursue work, a better life, and other considerations motivate migration to the country. The most prevalent reason for leaving the country is marriage (54%).
The low migration rate is due to a family component. That is, a different sort of familial purpose is least to blame for the flood of people entering the country. The second most popular motivation for migration is a better lifestyle. People relocate from rural to urban areas and vice versa for the same reasons. The graph shows that people relocate when their wants are not supplied locally, and that marriage is the most prevalent cause.
c. Trend of death of migrant workers
The line graph shows the trend of migrant worker deaths from 2008/09 to 2017/18. In 2008/09, there were 77 migrant worker fatalities, the lowest number ever.
The number of migrant worker deaths climbed steadily until 2014/15, when it reached 1006. It had the greatest migrant worker mortality rate. It increased from 77.419.566 to 648.722, 877, and 1006 in 2008/09. 2010/11. 2012/13. 2013/14 and 2014/15. The migrant worker death rate fell for two years in 2015/16 and 2016/17. In 2017/18, 821 migrant laborers died.
Overall, it demonstrates how the number of migrant worker fatalities climbed, then reduced, and then surged again. The greatest number of migrant worker fatalities was 1006 in 2014/15, while the lowest was 77 in 2008/09.
B. Study the following sentences and find the differences between them.
a. My grandfather used to smoke but he doesn't smoke now.
b. I would always talk to my grandfather whenever I had a problem.
Now, complete the sentences with used to or would.
d. My sister ...used to....have short hair when she was young.
e. We... used to ... have lunch in the same school café when I was in middle school.
f. My father ... used to …play badminton before he had a backbone problem.
G. When I was very young, .... did not use to...(not) like milk.
H. She ... would....call me after class for a chat.
I. My mother ... did not use to ...... (not) wear glasses when she was at the university.
J. when I was a child, we used to ...... live in a village.
k. On Sundays, My mother would. wake up and go to the temple.
l. How many friends ...would....have in class ten?
m. My father ... would... always read me bedtime stories before bed.
Next : Unit 20 Power and Politics